The Republic of Niger has significant reserves of uranium. According to the World Nuclear Association, Niger is the world's fourth-ranking producer of uranium. Uranium mining recently experienced expansion, partly due to revisions of Niger's mining laws that increased incentives for foreign investors.
Gold mining has traditionally been done on a small scale. Despite production starting in Niger's first commercial mine at Samira in late 2004, the gold sector's contribution to the economy remains modest.
Niger became an oil producer in 2011 with first production from the Agadem oilfield and when the country's first refinery was opened at Zinder. Reserves are estimated at 480 million barrels. Niger's oil production grew from 13,000 barrels per day in 2012 to 19,000 in 2013 according to the IMF, of which roughly two thirds is exported.