Oil and gas dominate the extractive sector. According to BP 2014 Statistical review, Nigeria holds 2.2% of world's crude oil reserves and 2.7% of gas. As Africa’s leading crude oil producer, Nigeria accounted for 26% of African and 2.7% of total world crude oil production in 2012. In the same year it accounted for 1.1% of global gas production.
The petroleum sector accounted for about 14% of Nigeria’s real gross domestic product and over 95% of exports in 2013 (Source: African Economic Outlook). According to the 2011 EITI Oil and Gas Report, government revenue from the petroleum sector was US $68.4 million in 2011. Current lower oil prices are likely to affect government revenue.
The sector is dominated by joint venture operations between the Nigerian government and six major international oil companies—Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Agip, Elf and Texaco. Nigeria’s reserves of natural gas—an estimated 179 trillion cubic feet of proven reserves—are among the ten largest in the world, but gas production is less significant economically.
The government holds all mineral rights and is responsible for issuing exploration and development licenses. The Minerals and Mining Act of 2007 and the Petroleum Act of 1969 form the legal basis for exploration and production activity in the mineral sector. To diversify the oil-based economy, government policy continued to promote investment in the exploration for and the development of solid minerals. According to the 2011 EITI Solid Minerals Report, the mining industry has high potential but would require stronger regulatory and monitoring systems to flourish.
The Nigeria EITI process has exposed outstanding debts by the national oil company to the Federal Government, recovered uncollected taxes, identified weaknesses in the regulatory bodies, audited oil-related transfers to subnational government, estimated oil theft, and examined oil sales. Read more in the EITI Progress Report 2014 and the NEITI Annual Activity Report 2013.
Nigeria is also taking part in a beneficial ownership pilot project. The overall governance environment is challenging, but NEITI is collecting a lot of information to inform public debate.
The upcoming oil and gas report will focus particularly on drawing out beneficial ownership information, more detail on quasi-mandatory social payments, building a license registry, and coverage of domestic sales (the ‘crude oil swaps’).
The 2012 Solid Minerals Report was published in December 2014. Revenues from the mining sector were modest in the reporting period, US $178 million, especially when compared with petroleum revenue. For the first time, the report included information on actual owners of mining companies. Read more about the report here.
In 2014, NEITI also published a report tracking the utilisation of oil revenue in 2007-2011. The report revealed that most states did not spend revenue on improving citizens’ living conditions. Funds worth US $41m could not be accounted for. Read more about the Fiscal Allocation and Statutory Disbursement Audit in a blog by National Coordinator Zainab Ahmed.
NEITI has published a report summarising findings from the first ten years (1999-2008) of EITI reporting. This succinct and informative report is available at the NEITI website.
- EITI reports include financial, physical and process audits.
- EITI-dedicated legislation: NEITI Act, 2007.
- Report disaggregated by company and revenue stream.
- NEITI is trying to investigate and raise debate and promote policy solutions on, among others, data on signature bonuses, unpaid royalties, crude oil and refined products theft, unpaid subsidies by NNPC. NEITI audits have identified US $9.8 billion owed to the Federal Govt, of which $2 billion has been recovered.
- In July 2013, the Tax Appeal Tribunal ordered Mobil Nigeria to pay US $83.4 million to the Federal Govt as unremitted education tax, following the NEITI audit.
- NEITI Fiscal Allocation and Statutory Disbursement Audit 2007-2011 brings transparency to the allocation, disbursement and utilisation of revenue from the Federation Account to federal, state and local governments and thereon to local beneficiaries.