Publication Type: 
Guidance note
Published Date: 
August, 2019

Guidance note 30 - Towards gender-responsive EITI implementation

Download guidance note [English]

Guidance note 30 - Requirements 1.4, 6.3, 7.1 and 7.4

Table of Contents

  1. Summary

  2. Key EITI gender Requirements

  3. Promoting diverse participation on MSGs 
    How to consider gender balance on MSGs
    Women’s participation on the MSG

  4. Gender-sensitive data disclosures
    Gender- and occupation level- disaggregated employment data (Requirement 6.3) 
    Opportunities for gender-disaggregated data beyond employment

  5. Outreach and dissemination activities to foster dialogue and improve data accessibility for women
    Women’s meaningful participation in EITI outreach events
    Open data

  6. Documenting efforts to make EITI implementation gender responsive

  7. Additional resources

1. Summary

The EITI seeks to help countries harness their natural resources in ways that benefit their citizens and contribute to sustainable development. The EITI platform represents an opportunity to engage citizens in their country’s management of natural resources, and for natural resource management to be shaped by the perspectives of women as well as men. Ensuring that EITI implementation is gender responsive and reflects women’s voices and experiences can result in more impactful and sustainable implementation that serves the interests of all citizens.

EITI implementation to date has often tended to insufficiently recognise the structural barriers that impede women, girls and other marginalized groups from equally contributing to and benefiting from improved extractive sector governance. A reflection of strong demand from EITI stakeholders, the 2019 EITI Standard includes language around promoting diverse participation on MSGs, gender-sensitive data disclosures, and outreach and dissemination activities to foster dialogue and improve data accessibility for women and men.

Working towards this requires a deliberate approach and an understanding of women’s different experiences of the sector. Factors including gendered labour and social roles, and access to resources or education levels, mean that the benefits of extraction tend to accrue to men, while women tend to be more vulnerable to the negative impacts of extractive projects.[1] Women disproportionately suffer the consequences of corruption associated with extractive projects as they often bear the double-burden of earning and caretaking, rendering them more vulnerable and exposed to bribery situations. Women are also less likely to have access to decision-making forums or information on the extractive sector and how it is managed, which in turn can exacerbate gender inequality with regards to the sector.[2] 

As well as being a responsibility to ensure that all citizens’ interests are represented, examining gender issues represents an opportunity to have a stronger EITI that harnesses the ideas, experience and strengths of women as well as men. This guidance note sets out advice as to how countries can implement provisions in the EITI Standard related to gender and move towards gender-responsive EITI implementation. It is divided into three sections that pertain to: 1) gender balance and meaningful participation[3] in MSGs; 2) gender-sensitive EITI disclosures; and 3) inclusive outreach and dissemination activities.

Whilst this note speaks of ‘women’, it is necessary to clarify that women are not a homogenous group. Other societal factors – such as indigeneity, race, class, location, age, ability – all affect different stakeholders’ experience of the extractive sector, their access to information and to decision-making. Whenever EITI implementing countries are seeking to include ‘women’ they should be conscious of which women they are considering, and how the overlap of social categorisations mean some women face multiple forms of barriers.[4] More broadly, gender relates to the socially constructed attributes and opportunites associated with people of different sexes.[5] It determines what is expected of and valued in women, men, girls and boys, as well as access to and control of resources. Many societies have seen, and continue to see, gender as a spectrum, and not limited to two possibilities (men and women).[6]

2. Key EITI gender Requirements

(underline added)

Requirement 1.4 Multi-stakeholder group

  1. The government is required to commit to work with civil society and companies, and establish a multi-stakeholder group to oversee the implementation of the EITI. In establishing the multi-stakeholder group, the government must: (…)

ii.    Ensure that stakeholders are adequately represented. This does not mean that they need to be equally represented numerically. The multi-stakeholder group must comprise appropriate stakeholders, including but not necessarily limited to: the private sector; civil society, including independent civil society groups and other civil society such as the media and unions; and relevant government entities which can also include parliamentarians. Each stakeholder group must have the right to appoint its own representatives, bearing in mind the desirability of pluralistic and diverse representation. The nomination process must be independent and free from any suggestion of coercion. Civil society groups involved in the EITI as members of the multi-stakeholder group must be operationally, and in policy terms, independent of government and/or companies. The multi-stakeholder group and each constituency should consider gender balance in their representation to progress towards gender parity.

Requirement 6.3 The contribution of the extractive sector to the economy

Implementing countries must disclose, when available, information about the contribution of the extractive industries to the economy for the fiscal year covered by the EITI Report.

It is required that this information includes: (…)

d.   Employment in the extractive industries in absolute terms and as a percentage of the total employment. The information should be disaggregated by gender and, when available, further disaggregated by company and occupational level.

Requirement 7.1 Public debate

The multi-stakeholder group must ensure that government and company disclosures are comprehensible, actively promoted, publicly accessible and contributes to public debate. Key audiences should include government, parliamentarians, civil society, companies and the media.

a) The multi-stakeholder group is required to:

i. Ensure that the information is widely accessible and distributed. Where the report contains extensive data, e.g. voluminous files, the multi-stakeholder group is encouraged to break this down into thematic reports and to make this available online.

ii. Ensure that the information is comprehensible, including by ensuring that it is written in a clear, accessible style and in appropriate languages and consider access challenges and information needs of different genders and subgroups of citizens.

iii. Ensure that outreach events, whether organised by government, civil society or companies, are undertaken to spread awareness of and facilitate dialogue about governance of extractive resources, building on EITI disclosures across the country in a socially inclusive manner.

Requirement 7.4 Review the outcomes and impact of EITI implementation

The multi-stakeholder group is required to review the outcomes and impact of EITI implementation on natural resource governance.

a) The multi-stakeholder group is required to document their annual review of impact and outcomes of EITI implementation in an annual progress report or through other means agreed by the multi-stakeholder group. This should include any actions undertaken to address issues that the MSG has identified as priorities for EITI implementation. (…)

In addition, the multi-stakeholder group is encouraged to document how it has taken gender considerations and inclusiveness into account.

3. Promoting diverse participation on MSGs

The MSG oversees implementation of the EITI and is an important decision-making forum for a country’s natural resource management. MSGs therefore represent an opportunity for women to play a key role in decision-making, as well as an opportunity for natural resource management to be shaped by the perspectives and experiences of women as well as men.[7] The EITI Standard requires that in establishing the MSG, the government should ensure that stakeholders are adequately represented, bearing in mind the desirability of pluralistic and diverse representation. The MSG and each constituency should further consider gender balance in their representation to progress towards gender parity (1.4.a.ii).

Women are still significantly less represented on most MSGs compared to men.[8] A 2015 analysis of 23 EITI implementing countries found that women made up less than a quarter of most MSGs, with some countries having no women at all on their MSGs.[9] It is the responsibility of all MSG members to ensure that women and gender considerations are taken into account in implementation. The following section suggests ways in which MSGs could seek to improve women’s representation on the MSG (i.e. being a member) and women’s meaningful participation (their ability to speak, be heard and set the agenda).[10]

How to consider gender balance on MSGs

As part of its efforts to meet EITI Requirement 1.4 and consider gender balance in its representation, MSGs might wish to consider the following actions:

  1. Conducting an analysis to assess whether and how the MSG’s structure, nominations process and practices affect the ability of women and men to be represented on the MSG.[11] The analysis should seek to identify barriers to participation and consider means of surpassing these, as well as looking at areas where progress needs to be made. It should consider other societal factors (e.g., rural/urban, class, age, ethnicity, indigeneity), as well as existing power relations within the MSG.[12] If possible, the MSG could also compare the group composition to previous iterations of the group, to see whether women’s representation has been increasing, decreasing or steady.[13]

  2. Developing an action plan to set objectives and activities to tackle barriers to gender-balanced representation on MSGs. These activities could be integrated into the MSG’s existing work plans (Requirement 1.5)[14] and reflect barriers and challenges already identified by stakeholders or in the analysis of MSGs procedures and practices. The actions might include:

  • Making a public pledge as an implementing country that each constituency on the MSG achieve the same, specific target with regards to women’s representation (E.g., Women to make up 50 % of each constituency on the MSG by 2022).[15]

  • Adopting a formal requirement for a minimum level of women’s representation that applies to each constituency.

  • Ensuring the nominations process is transparent, well-publicised and is applied consistently in practice. If constituencies on the MSG have less than 40 % of their representatives as women after an election round, they could issue a statement explaining why it was not possible to reach this threshold and outline steps being taken to improve gender diversity in the future.[16] Ideally, such statements should be part of an overall one issued by the MSG as a whole.

  • Encouraging or requiring alternates from the under-represented gender in order to help develop their expertise.

  • Setting term limits for representatives to encourage turnover[17] and create space for newcomers from diverse backgrounds.

  • Organising training or sensitisation sessions to better understand the ways in which gender differences affect men and women’s ability to be represented on MSGs. Such an activity could be expanded to also cover the links between EITI and gender issues more generally.

  • Ensuring that the list of MSG members is publicly available and tracking progress on gender balance.

  • Considering appointing one MSG member as a focal point for gender considerations.

Good practice: The power of pledges and public commitments

Public pledges stating specific gender targets for women’s representation have been increasingly used by governments and companies over the last few years. In 2016, BHP Billiton publicly announced a target of a 50% female workforce by 2025, whilst in 2015 Goldcorp signed a pledge to have women make up at least 25% of its Canadian board members by 2017.[18] As well as providing a target and timeline, public commitments increase accountability and are one of the methods for improving women’s participation on boards cited in the IFC Toolkit on women and business in the extractive context.[19] Billiton’s CEO stated that they made more progress on gender diversity in the one year after making the pledge than in the decade preceding it.[20]

 

Considering use of quotas

Quotas can be helpful mechanisms for increasing women’s participation in decision-making bodies.[21] Several countries, such as Germany, France and Norway, have passed laws setting minimum quotas for women’s representation on the boards of publicly-listed companies.[22]

However, poorly designed and unambitious quotas can also cause controversy and are not always effective; in certain cases, they can create incentives that stall women’s representative progress. For example, South Africa’s mining charter sets a quota of 10% participation for women in mining companies’ workforces. This has been seen by some mining companies as an end rather than start goal and has in cases limited the debate to numbers rather than addressing broader issues preventing women’s participation in the workforce. [23] Quotas do not necessarily address structural barriers to women’s representation and should be used in parallel with other efforts to build an institutional environment more conducive to women’s representation. [24]  They should also be applied in a way that goes beyond numbers to recognise different roles and responsibilities.

  1. Monitoring progress to ensure diverse and gender-balanced representation on the MSG. As part of its annual review of outcomes and impact of EITI implementation, the MSG could take stock of its progress regarding objectives and activities aimed at tackling barriers to gender-balanced representation. The MSG is encouraged to document how it has taken gender considerations and inclusiveness into account (Requirement 7.4).

Women’s participation on the MSG      

The question of participation is separate to that of representation. If women are nominally on the MSG, are they able to attend meetings? Do they have the opportunity to express themselves and is their input taken into consideration? The EITI Standard has requirements that can contribute to support the participation of women and other marginalised groups in MSGs. These include the requirement to agree clear public Terms of Reference (ToRs) for its work (1.4.b) and ensuring sufficient advance notice of meetings and timely circulation of documents prior to their debate and proposed adoption (1.4.b.vii). Adhering to this would allow women with particular scheduling needs (e.g. related to child care) to plan their participation and input ahead of MSG meetings. The Standard also requires “an inclusive decision-making process throughout implementation” (1.4.b.vi). The following are options MSGs could consider to strengthen women’s participation in the EITI process, drawing on practices in the open government field and existing guidance.[25]

  1. Introducing techniques to strengthen women’s participation:
  • Alternating meeting-setting or leadership roles, for instance alternating the chair by gender or having co-chairs of different genders.[26]

  • Using techniques in meetings that serve to break up power monopolies and try to make it as simple as possible for all individuals to contribute. For instance:

    • Allowing a woman to make the first intervention;[27]

    • Avoiding to distribute ‘action points’ in a way that reflects traditional stereotypes.[28]

  • Supporting the logistical participation of members, particularly if they are under-resourced, and in a way that takes into account women’s particular scheduling needs. This support should be designed carefully so as not to create benefits that incentivise ‘locking’ the MSG to outsiders (e.g., excessive per diems).Designing capacity building opportunities to strengthen confidence and speaking skills of MSG representatives.

  1. Going beyond the Standard: MSGs wishing to innovate beyond the participation and representation of women could also consider how to support the participation of gender experts, women’s rights groups and women in mining associations. In many contexts, representatives of these groups – especially women in mining associations at the local level or women’s rights groups – face significant obstacles in participating in EITI and need additional and purposeful support. These actors can help ensure that there are people with the relevant expertise to help make make EITI implementation gender responsive. MSGs could organize training  sessions for their members with experts or women’s rights organizations to better understand how gender equality and women’s rights can be advanced in their work. MSG members could also conduct outreach activities to engage men and boys as allies in order to build on their capacity to recognize the different but complementary strengths of women and men in the areas of leadership, communication and decision making. 

Women miners on the MSG in Burkina Faso

In Burkina Faso, AFEMIB, the association for women miners in Burkina Faso, has been on the MSG since 2013 as a civil society organisation representative. The association has been key in helping the EITI promote an understanding of the extractive sector and its impact in Burkina Faso in a way that reflects women’s interests and needs as well as men’s. It has also led in the design and implementation of activities highlighting the overlap between EITI and gender issues, as well as outreach events targeting women.

4. Gender-sensitive data disclosures

Much of the data currently required by the EITI Standard can, if disseminated and used effectively, help inform discussions about the gendered impacts of extraction and resource governance. For example, data on payments to subnational governments can be a useful entry point to advocate for a use of revenues that benefits men and women.[29]

As women’s experience of the extractive sector tends to be different to men’s, it follows that the questions they have about the sector might be different too.[30] EITI countries could choose to disclose complementary data to better respond to informational needs of different groups. This would also be an opportunity for countries to promote a more comprehensive understanding of the extractive sector.

While the EITI Standard only requires employment data to be disaggregated by gender, there are other ways in which implementing countries could consider disclosing data in a way that addresses the informational needs of different groups of women affected by the extractive sector. What data disclosure is best to focus on will depend on a country’s EITI priorities, what data is already included in its reports and key gender issues regarding the extractive sector in that country.

Gender- and occupation level- disaggregated employment data (Requirement 6.3)

Gender-disaggregated employment data is useful in understanding the impact of the extractive sector on a country’s economy. Disaggregation by occupational level in addition to gender matters because women tend to not only be under-represented in the extractive workforce but, when employed, tend to have the more junior roles.[31] The 2019 EITI Standard requires that where available, data on the extractive sector’s employment should be disaggregated by gender, by company and occupational level (Requirement 6.3.d).

Several countries, including the Philippines and Zambia[32] have already published gender-disaggregated data on employment data; the Philippines has been doing so since its 2014 report.  Madagascar has collected employment data that is disaggregated by sex and occupational level (worker, management, executive, other) for its upcoming 2017-2018 EITI Report.

Further examples of gender-disaggregated data related to employment in EITI Reports

  • Employment and leadership positions: The Philippines 2017 EITI Report also provides gender-disaggregated data for employees working for small-scale miners’ associations[33] and delves into gender distribution of leadership positions in miners’ associations.

  • Engagement in artisanal and small-scale mining: In its 2016 report Mongolia provided gender-disaggregated data on artisanal miners in the country.[34]

  • Employment data on gender and indigeneity: The Philippines 2017 EITI Report goes beyond reporting the sex of extractive employees to also record their indigeneity. Such reporting is useful to go beyond issues of gender and cover other key societal issues that affect a person’s vulnerability to the negative impacts of extraction or access to its benefits.[35]

There may also be cases where implementing countries and companies already routinely collect gender-disaggregated data that could be useful to include in EITI Reports. National statistics offices are likely to collect and disseminate official labour statistics including data on employment in the oil, gas and mining sectors.

On the company side, gender-disaggregated data on employees is a data stream that many companies may be collecting outside of EITI and publishing on their website and annual reports. Some companies might also be publishing employee gender-related data For instance, most mining companies that are members of the International Council on Mining and Metals and EITI supporters apply the reporting standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). [36] This includes gender reporting on hiring, parental leave, training, remuneration and governance (e.g. how many women are represented on the Board and hold executive positions, and how many women are employed in the rest of the company).

Example: Company reporting on gender-disaggregated employment data by occupational level (Rio Tinto’s susinatability report)

Source: Rio Tinto (2019), Pioneering progress: 2018 Sustainable development report, accessible here.

Before requesting data from reporting entities, MSGs could consult with the national statistics office and extractive companies to understand what employment figures are already being collected and published on gender and occupational levels in the oil, gas and mining sectors. 

Opportunities for gender-disaggregated data beyond employment

While the EITI Standard only requires that employment data be disaggregated by gender under Requirement 6.3, MSGs could explore other opportunities for disclosing gender-disaggregated data under other EITI Requirements. The table below includes data disclosures under the EITI that may not explicitly be gender-disaggregated, but that have links with gender issues if effectively reported and disseminated. It presents possible ‘entry points’ – where and how there is overlap between EITI requirements and issues linked to the gendered impacts and opportunities of the extractive sector. Providing a starting point for dialogue on more comprehensive disclosure down the line, MSGs could decide to disseminate EITI data to different groups of women, in collaboration with women’s rights organisations, women in mining associations and other gender experts. This table is intended as a starting point for conversation and to guide thinking – it is not prescriptive, comprehensive, nor are the suggested disclosures applicable to all countries. It is followed by examples from EITI reporting and existing guidance materials.

EITI RequirementPotential gender impacts and opportunities for gender-disaggregation
Legal framework and fiscal regime (2.1)Summary information about the legal and fiscal regimes governing the sector, including ongoing reforms, can give women and marginalised groups access to key information about how the extractive sector works and entry points for influencing policy. Information on the legal framework could refer to any legal provisions or government policies related to enhancing the participation of women in the extractive sector and managing impacts of the extractive sector on local communities.
Licensing information and beneficial ownership (Requirements 2.2, 2.3 and 2.5)Public information about licence allocation processes and who owns the companies participating in the sector can be useful for citizens, including women, to understand how licences are awarded, whether the procedures are efficient and the extent to which women participate in the sector. Where countries disclose named individuals who have been awarded licences and/or who are the beneficial owners of companies that have been awarded licences, this information could be disaggregated by gender. This could apply for both large scale mining and artisanal and small-scale mining.
Contract transparency (Requirement 2.4)Contracts are a potential entry-point for EITI to advance gender equality and the empowerment and inclusion of women, as they include important information on a company’s obligation to a community, including mandatory social expenditure or local content commitments. Through public contracts, there is also an opportunity to ensure that women and marginalized groups have equal access to and an equal chance to analyze the specific fiscal, legal and contractual terms for a project, including the extent  Improved revenue collection from the extractive sector allow governments to provide public services and social protection that promote gender equality.
Revenue collection and project-level payments to government (Requirement 4)Comprehensive disclosures of payments and revenues at the project-level can assist communities in holding governments and companies to account, by allowing comparison between payments to governments resulting from an oil, gas or mining projects. Such disclosures can be used by women to ask questions about how the government is using their oil, gas and mining revenues. 
Revenue allocations and subnational transfers (Requirement 5)

The Standard encourages implementing countries to disclose a description of the budget process and information on revenues earmarked for specific programmes or geographic regions, including a description of the methods for ensuring accountability and efficiency in their use. This could include information on whether a gender-responsive budgeting process was followed, and/or how the participation of different groups of women was sought in the decision-making process.

Earmarked funds and/or subnational transfers can be an opportunity to track whether extractive revenues are being spent at the central and local levels in a way that takes into account the different interests and needs of women and men, or in a way that seeks to diminish gender inequalities.  
Social expenditures and contributions (Requirement 6.1)

Data on social expenditures could help track the extent to which these are allocated to respond to priorities identified by women, which may include staffing of existing facilities for education, health, and environmental remediation.[37] Social expenditure data could be particularly useful in creating an entry point to engaging with women on EITI. For example, consultations with civil society in the DRC indicate that showing women in communities social expenditure data encouraged them to start asking other questions of the sector. Understanding where social expenditures were spent also led some to realise they had not been consulted about the projects.

The data on beneficiaries of social expenditure by extractive companies could also be disaggregated by gender where named individuals are listed as beneficiaries (e.g., scholarships, trainings, as seen in Liberia).

Engagement in the artisanal and informal sector (6.3)

In many cases, people engage in artisanal and small-scale mining because it is the most promising pathway out of poverty.  Although there is a critical lack of data, women are believed to account for up to 30 % of the global ASM workforce, and up to 50% in Africa. Remuneration is often a third of what men earn in the sector but exposure to health and safety risks, including as a consequence of environmental degradation, is often greater.

Data on women’s engagement in the artisanal mining sector and small mining associations could be disaggregated by gender and other societal factors.[38] EITI stakeholders could work collaboratively with local organizations to gather data on women’s involvement in the ASM sector as miners, vendors, buyers/sellers, supporters and transporters.

Employment and local content (Requirement 6.3.d)

In addition to the required disclosures on extractive sector employment disaggregated by gender and, where available, by employment level, data on how companies are encouraging procurement from qualified women-owned businesses (see box below).

Environmental impact and monitoring (6.4).Environmental impacts of extraction tend to affect women and men differently, which is why  many women’s rights organisations working on extractive issues also have a focus on environmental issues. Information on the management and monitoring of environmental impacts of extraction could be gender-disaggregated so that it includes an understanding of the different impacts on women and men, and how citizens are being involved in monitoring.

 

Example: Disclosing beneficiaries of social payments in Liberia

Liberia’s 2015-2016 EITI Report contains detailed information about the recipients of in-kind and cash social payments by companies, including the names of those who received resettlement compensation and scholarships for high school and universities.[39] This type of information could be gender-disaggregated, particularly as it points directly to some of the key issues relating to gender relations and the extractive sector (such as access to opportunities, land rights and compensation).

 

Example: Links between EITI and gender-disaggregated local content data

Already, 24 EITI countries are disclosing local content data (e.g., local content policies or data on employment) to help ensure that countries and local communities can make the most of the opportunity.[40] There are often expectations that local content can be a potentially important source of revenue and jobs for men and women. However, current data disclosure often does not allow users to see what is happening with regards to women engaging with the local sector. This is particularly valuable information given the challenges women face when it comes to accessing economic opportunities – such as the likelihood of having lower financial literacy levels, less access to credit, less access to education and training more broadly and less information about business opportunities related to the extractive sector.[41]

Complementary data disclosure under EITI could help assess the participation of women in these economic sectors, track the efforts being made to help women access local content opportunities, and highlight areas where reform is needed.

The following list of data disclosures draws on existing resources on local content[42] and highlights possible data points that could be disclosed by companies to measure the diversity of their suppliers:

  1. Percentage of spend with women-owned business suppliers.
  2. Percentage of all suppliers who qualify as women-owned businesses.
  3. Average contract size for women-owned businesses.

Combined at a national level, this data would allow EITI reports to track the level of participation of women-owned business suppliers and examine progress.

The Local Procurement Reporting Mechanism (LPRM) also recommends that companies report what companies are doing to support women-owned businesses through disclosure 507 on encouraging procurement from particular groups: The reporting organisation [extractive company] should describe efforts that proactively encourage suppliers to include and support particular groups, such as women, visible minorities, youth, and Indigenous communities.”[43]

Finally, supplier development programmes provided by companies could be reported under the EITI as one of the in-kind or material social benefit of an extractive company (Requirement 6.1).[44]

The following are suggestions for how MSGs could come to decisions around what data areas they could and would like to focus on.

  1. Determining data needs and possibilities. Using the table above as a starting point, MSGs could begin a dialogue with their broader constituencies to determine where EITI disclosure could provide important data linked to women’s experience of the sector that helps increase the comprehensiveness of EITI reporting. The objective would be to match the information needs of different groups of women and stakeholders working on gender issues, to data disclosures that under EITI. Table 1 highlights potential entry points and links between EITI Requirements and gender impact that could help inform MSG discussions on possibilities for strengthening the gender impact of EITI data and considering opportunities for data disaggregation. It is however essential that efforts to disaggregate disclosures by gender or disclose other gender-sensitive data are based on demands from stakeholders and that such disclosures are feasible.

  2. Promoting an understanding of the gendered impacts and opportunities of the extractive sector. MSGs could also use the EITI process to increase their understanding of the extractive sector, its impact on men and women, and its relationship to gender issues. In their 2015-2017 workplan, Malawi had for instance included plans for a commissioned report on the gender-disaggregated socio-economic impacts of extraction along the value chain.[45]

5. Outreach and dissemination activities to foster dialogue and improve data accessibility for women 

According to EITI Requirement 7.1 the MSG must make sure that the “EITI Report is comprehensible, actively promoted, publicly accessible and contributes to public debate.” This includes making EITI disclosures available in open data format, circulating paper copies of EITI Reports and conducting outreach activities. MSGs are also required to ensure that the information is comprehensible, including by ensuring that it is written in a clear, accessible style and in appropriate languages and consider access challenges and information needs of different genders and subgroups of citizens (Requirement 7.1.a.ii).

Broadly speaking, women tend to face more challenges than men when it comes to accessing information and contributing to public debate. This is due to a range of gender differences regarding labour laws, access to resources, education levels and more.[46] These challenges will be even greater for women who face barriers not only because of their gender, but because of their race, class, indigeneity or where they live. In order for EITI dissemination activities to reach all women, and enable them to engage with natural resource governance, the various barriers they face have to be made visible and addressed, including through promoting best practices in open data policies. Reaching women – be they parliamentarians, local deputies or those near mining sites – through communications and outreach activities requires a deliberate approach that is specific to each context and targeted information that has been made relevant to their needs.  

As part of its efforts to disseminate information on the extractive sector to the public, including women, the MSG might wish to consider the following actions (presented as options that MSGs may wish to draw on):

  1. Developing a strong communications plan. Many implementing countries already develop a communications plan to support the dissemination of EITI data and content. A tailored communications plan is essential to ensure that key audiences including women and marginalised groups are not excluded. It should include a breakdown of targeted audiences, the tools needed to reach each audience and which message is conveyed to them. In order to develop the strongest tools and messages for each audience, it is necessary to know how they access information and what their informational needs are, as well as what barriers they might face in accessing information. It is important for any analysis and strategy to differentiate not only between genders but also different societal factors. To inform their strategy, MSGs and national secretariats could consult with women’s organisations and gender experts who have knowledge about the informational needs of different groups of women, refer to data on information consumption of different demographics, or hold focus groups with targeted audiences.

Examples of communications activities targeting women

Burkina Faso – Workplan 2017-2019[47]

Encouraged by AFEMIB, the women miners’ association, activities from Burkina Faso’s workplan that engage with women and promote information about gender and the extractive industry:

  • Capacity building session for local and national female deputies on women and mining
  • Debates and radio shows on the health and environmental implications of artisanal mining, particularly with regards to the conditions for women and girls
  • Brainstorming workshop on how to increase women’s participation in local content opportunities
  • Televised debate on women’s contribution to the extractive sector and how to promote women leadership in the sector.

Democratic Republic of Congo

DRC’s National EITI Secretariat strives to ensure that the participants in their capacity building and dissemination workshops are, as far as possible, gender-balanced. The Secretariat is currently looking at sharing EITI data specifically with women’s rights organisations. [48]

Promoting knowledge and debate about gender issues:

  • MSGs and national secretariats could organise outreach activities that specifically target women, including women’s rights organisations and women’s networks, or that seek to promote understanding about the role of women in the extractive sector and the link between gender issues and natural resource governance.

  • MSGs could also consider organising capacity building sessions to help groups of womenuse EITI data. The EITI briefing on gender equality for instance suggests MSGs organise training for women’s rights organisations on tracking “payments made to governments from extractive operations.”[49]

Women’s meaningful participation in EITI outreach events

Outreach and in-person events have been a key tool used by MSGs and national secretariats to disseminate EITI data. Women risk being excluded from outreach events if gender differences relating to people’s ability to participate are not taken into account and if specific and deliberate measures are not pursued to address barriers. A recent change to the EITI Standard requires that “outreach events [be] undertaken…in a socially inclusive manner.” While this goes beyond gender to also cover how other factors, such as age, disabilities or education also affect one’s ability to participate in these types of events, the below focusses predominantly on gender.

To strengthen the meaningful participation of women and marginalised groups in EITI outreach and dissemination activities, the MSG might wish to consider the following actions (presented as options that MSGs may wish to draw on):

  1. Assessing barriers to meaningful participation. An essential and first step towards socially inclusive outreach events would be to assess and understand the structural barriers preventing meaningful participation by women and marginalised groups in these activities and develop ways to overcome these. There are resources available on stakeholder engagement at various levels that can help guide MSGs and national secretariats that wish to analyse barriers to women’s participation or developinclusive events (listed in the box below).

Tools and guidance to analysing barriers to women’s participation and developing inclusive events

  • Canada’s analytical process Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+)[50]  is designet to help ask questions, challenge assumption and assess how diverse group of women, men and non-binary people are impacted by policies, programs and initiatives. Canada’s Guide to Gender-based Analysis Plus and Inclusive Governance[51]  offers tools to apply GBA+ and other inclusive practices to open government efforts. It was created to support governments that wish to make their open government initiatives, such as EITI, more inclusive.[52]

  • Rio Tinto produced a guide for integrating gender considerations into its communities work. The guide includes a section explaining some of the barriers women in mining communities face with regards to participation and outlines suggested actions.[53]

  • The government body tasked with environmental impact assessments in Peru (SENACE) developed a toolkit to increase the participation of women in the process of environmental certification at the local level.[54]

  • GIZ has developed a guide for how to increase women’s participation in district or municipal budget hearings. [55]

  • MSGs could also consult with women’s groups, civil servants working on gender issues and extractive companies that seek to include women in community consultations to identify existing resources or tools.

 

  1. Practical measures for inclusive EITI events. The following are practices MSGs and national secretariats could consider to ensure a more inclusive and meaningful participation in events and consultations, including of women and marginalised groups. As highlighted above, it is particularly important to consider the needs of women who face overlapping forms of discrimination based on their race, age or indigeneity. Some of these measures relate to women being able to attend a meeting, whilst others focus on meaningful participation. It is up to implementing countries to decide which is most appropriate for them depending on context, ideally in consultation with key stakeholders and experts:
  • Consulting women and other stakeholders to ensure meetings are held at times and locations they can attend.

  • Considering the needs in terms of capacity-building, practical and logistical support women and marginalised groups might need in order to be able to meaningfully participate in events, including funding.

  • Identifying and mobilising women leaders ahead of time.

  • Organising “pre” sessions for women leaders and women to help build their capacities to strengthen their participation in the main event.

  • Organising different working groups for men and women, in spaces in which women may feel more comfortable to speak freely.

  • Collecting gender-disaggregated data on beneficiaries of outreach activities.

Rio Tinto’s community consultations in Mongolia[56]

When Rio Tinto began hearing different concerns and questions about an exploration programme during family consultations than it had through community meetings, the company realised its consultation process had not enabled the full participation of women.

The company therefore began a consultation process directly with women’s groups to get their views and concerns about the upcoming mining project. By doing this, Rio Tinto was able to glean new insights into the potential impact of their project – including for instance the fact that women were concerned about the potential effect of the mine on pastures, as dairy products were a responsibility of women in that community. The company also learned that women preferred to be consulted in winter rather than spring when they had fewer household responsibilities.

 

Open data[57]  

Open data is a crucial part of how MSGs and national secretariats share EITI data with a country’s citizens. As stated in the EITI Open Data policy, implementing countries should take into account the “access challenges and information needs of different genders and subgroups of citizens” as they develop their open data approach.[58]

The EITI is making efforts to move towards routine disclosures through government and corporate systems (databases, portals etc),[59] with implementing countries having adopted open data policies to improve data accessibility.[60]  Open data enables users to analyse, package, tailor and redistribute specific data in more innovative ways than if the data were locked in a PDF, thereby enabling them to target different audiences more effectively. As such the movement towards more disclosure via open data creates an opportunity to ensure that EITI data reaches different groups of women, and that they are involved in the debate on natural resource management.

There are challenges to using open data and ensuring its accessibility, and some of these are gendered. Gender differences in unpaid labour, digital and written literacy, and access to funding might create obstacles for women in accessing and using open data. [61] In light of these challenges, the EITI’s open data policy states that that governments should take into account the “access challenges and information needs of different genders and subgroups of citizens” and encourages countries to “consider different user needs and access challenges based on gender, ethnic and geographic representation” during the creation and implementation of open data policies.

Some initial ways in which implementing countries could seek to make the most of open data to foster dialogue and ensure women’s access to data could include:

  • Making sure summary data files are available in an open data format and encouraging best practices in open data policies.

  • Encouraging the use of easily accessible digital platforms that are free to use and do not require users to submit personal information.

  • Encouraging infomediaries who have the required skills and expertise to adapt and package EITI data in a way that serves the interests and needs of different groups of women.

  • Conducting capacity building workshops to help EITI stakeholders, including women, use EITI data for their interests and needs. Training opportunities could also be developed specifically for women in mining associations, women’s rights organisations and other gender expert groups. The Iraq Open Initiative by Internews for example will train 40 female journalist and CSO advocates of gender in how to ‘access, analyze, and use data on government budgets and advocate for gender equality in public expenditure.’[62]

  • Working with gender and open data experts; There is a rich vein of actors working on open data in other governance initiatives, as well as on open data and gender, with whom collaboration could be fruitful. A recent report on open data and women in Africa women listed 15 organisations from eight different countries on the continent working on these issues.[63]

6. Documenting efforts to make EITI implementation gender responsive

The 2019 EITI Standard enourages MSGs to to document how it has taken gender considerations and inclusiveness into account as part of its annual review of progress with EITI implementation. The EITI has issued dedicated guidance on how to document progress (eiti.org/GN5), which will be updated to reflect the new provisions in Requirement 7.4 related to gender.

7. Additional resources

GIZ ( 2019), Gender in Multi-Stakeholder-Partnerships, Internal Guidance, http://www.bmz.de/rue/en/releases/publications/2019/May/Gender_in_Multi-Stakeholder-Partnerships/index.html

Engineers Without Borders (2019), Using the LPRM to Report on Mining Sector Procurement from WomenOwned Businesses, https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54d667e5e4b05b179814c788/t/5d0ece126d532e0001961f8e/1561251347565/LPRM-gender-guidance-V1-1-Jun2019.pdf.pdf

Canadian government (2019), Guide to Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+) and Inclusive Open Government, https://www.opengovpartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Guide-GBAandInclusive-Open-Government.pdf

Oxfam (2019), Accountable to whom? Promoting women’s rights through extractive industries revenue accountability https://www.oxfamamerica.org/explore/research-publications/accountability-extractive-industries/

Publish What You Pay (2019), In it together: Advancing women’s rights through the extractive industries transparency movement https://www.pwyp.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/In-it-together-PWYP-Gender-project-report.pdf

EITI (2018), How gender relates to the EITI mission, https://eiti.org/document/how-gender-relates-to-eiti-mission

EITI (2018), EITI and gender equality, https://eiti.org/document/eiti-gender-equality

International Financial Corporation (2018), Unlocking Opportunities for Women and Business: A Toolkit of Actions and Strategies for Oil, Gas, and Mining Companies, https://www.commdev.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Unlocking_Opportunities_for_Women_and_Business_IFC-2.pdf

International Gender Champions (2018), Gender responsive assemblies – A toolkit for concrete action https://s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/igc-production/files/iY7XA3ala4ut_A_AR2WO1-RzfMp8Fmvm.pdf

Mining Share Value (2017), Mining Local Procurement Reporting Mechanism, https://www.bmz.de/rue/includes/downloads/GIZ_EWB-MSV-MINING_LPRM-July-2017.pdf

Rio Tinto (2009), Why gender matters: A resource guide for integrating gender considerations into communities work at Rio Tinto, http://www.riotinto.com/documents/ReportsPublications/Rio_Tinto_gender_guide.pdf

 

[1] World Bank (2009). Gender Dimensions of the Extractive Industries : Mining for Equity. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18236

[2] Ibid

[3]  Oxfam America defines meaningful participation as going “beyond counting women to include women’s ability to exercise voice, engage in leadership, and influence decision-making”.

[4] For more on the definition of intersectionality from the European Institute for Gender Equality see: https://eige.europa.eu/thesaurus/terms/1263

[7] For more on the benefits of gender-balanced multi-stakeholder partnerships see GIZ “Gender in Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships”

[8] A 2019 PWYP study on advancing women’s rights through the extractive industries transparency movement showed that EITI implementation had generally been “gender-blind” for many years. See: MSG Integrity (2015), Protecting the cornerstone: Assessing the government of EITI multi-stakeholder groups, http://www.msi-integrity.org/eiti-governance-report/; PWYP (2019), In it together: Advancing women’s rights through the extractive industries transparency movement, https://www.pwyp.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/In-it-together-PWYP-Gender-project-report.pdf.

[10] Oxfam America defines meaningful participation as going “beyond counting women to include women’s ability to exercise voice, engage in leadership, and influence decision-making”

[11] For more on gender analyses see GIZ’s gendering German development website https://www.genderingermandevelopment.net/gender-analysis.html

[12] For more information about the approach and methodology such analysis could adopt, see: PWYP (2019), https://www.pwyp.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/In-it-together-PWYP-Gender-project-report.pdf.

[14] Integrating this action plan into the MSG’s existing work plan would help ensure that its implementation is monitored and that funding is made available. 

[17] From IFC toolkit

[19] IFC page 53

[21] Research by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) and their Gender Quota Database suggests that half of the world’s countries use some type of electoral quota for their parliaments: https://www.idea.int/data-tools/data/gender-quotas/quotas

[26] Ibid

[38] Further guidance is available from in Guidance note 21 on the coverage of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM) under the EITI: https://eiti.org/GN21

[42] Mining Shared Value’s Local Procurement Reporting Mechanism (LPRM): miningsharedvalue.org/mininglprm, IFC toolkit on how to improve opportunities for women within the extractive sector: https://www.commdev.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/ToolSuite2_Interior_FIN-05-16_LoRes-1.pdf

[44] Ibid, p.55

[45]The report is still on hold due to lack of funding.

[48] Written correspondence with member of staff from EITI National Secretariat in the DRC

[57] Open data as defined by Open Definition is “data and content [that] can be freely used, modified and shared by anyone for any purpose”

[58]