Peru

Estatus EITI Progreso significativo
Miembro del EITI desde 2007
Datos más recientes desde 2014
Sitio web EITI Peru

Overview

Peru is a global leader producer of gold, copper and natural gas. The Peruvian economy has been one of the fastest growing economies in the region during the last decade, with average GDP’s growth of 5.9% and low inflation. As the mining and hydrocarbon sectors develop, the extractive industries contribution to the national economy continues to be significant, accounting for 11.5% of GDP in 2014. Following this strong economic performance, poverty levels were reduced from 55.6% in 2005 to 21.8% in 2015.

Public management of these resources is structurated at the national level, but managment of these money flows in the sub-national level are considered inefficient and prone to corruption. To shed light into these challenges, EITI Peru has published ten years of data, and has started to decentralise EITI implementation. Two regions, Piura and Moquegua, have produced sub-national EITI Reports. More regions are expected to be added in 2017.

The Government regards the mining sector as a "lever to make the leap to industrial development". Most projects are developed in inhospitable places, the sector also contributes to building infrastructure and to employment opportunities for local communities. This model has also generated social conflicts around mining operations. The goal of the EITI in Peru is to improve the public’s understanding of the management of country’s resources and to trust building

Country Licenses. Mining concessions are awarded and administered by Ingemmet. The procedures for requesting a mining concession are explained here. Hydrocarbon concessions are awarded and administered by Peru Petro. The bidding procedures are explained here.

EITI Piura has opened doors for us to engage in truly informed dialogue with our regional government on the use of the money received from our hydrocarbons.
Francisco Cordova Sanchez, CSO activist in Piura

Production

Peru is a leading producer of mineral commodities such as copper (second after Chile), gold (sixth), lead (fourth), molybdenum (fourth), silver (first), tin (third), and zinc (second after China). The country is also a significant producer of oil and gas. Natural gas and condensates are concentrated in the Camisea basin in central Peru.

Natural resources

Peru has rich deposits of copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, natural gas and petroleum. Abundant mineral resources are found mainly in the mountainous areas. It is considered one of the top ten richest mineral countries in the world.

CommodityReservesUnitSignificance
Oil1,104Million barrels 
Gas610Trillion Sm3 
Gold2.110Metric tonsPeru has 4% of the world's gold reserves.
Copper60.7Million metric tons 
Silver98,869Metric tonsPeru has 22% of the world's silver reserves.
Copper68,404Thousand metric tonsPeru has 13% of the world's copper reserves.
Iron1,427,004Thousand metric tons 
Molybdenum3,055Thousand metric tons 
Lead7,038Thousand metric tonsPeru has 9% of the world's copper reserves.
Zinc29,046Thousand metric tonsPeru has 7.6% of the world's copper reserves.

Source: “Proven and Probable Reserves” in 2013 EITI Report, MEM Peru, USGS Peru Minerals Yearbook 2013.

Oil and Gas production (in Sm3 o.e.)

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Mineral Production (Tonnes)

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Revenue collection

The latest EITI Report (2013) shows that Peru received USD 5.9 billion from the extractive industries. Slightly more than half of these revenues came from hydrocarbons, mainly gas, with the rest from mining, with copper and gold as the major commodities. Revenues were mainly collected through profit taxes (55%) and royalties (37%). Two special mining taxes that were introduced in 2011 represent almost 8% of revenues.

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Receiving government entities

Revenue allocation

Regional and municipal governments receive, via transfers from the central government, around half of the Peruvian state’s revenues from the extractive industries. The other half is allocated to the national budget. There are a number of online tools with information about the national budget including Execution of funds and National budget systems.

Innovations

The EITI encourages multi-stakeholder groups to explore innovative approaches to make the EITI more relevant and useful.

Sub-national EITI implementation

In 2015, the regions of Piura and Moquegua piloted EITI implementation. Both regions formed multi-stakeholder groups and commissioned, together with Peru EITI, pilot EITI Reports. These reports feature reconciled transfers from the central government to regions and municipalities and, more crucial to building trust, disclosed information on how these subnational governments have used extractive revenues. The two reports also contained historical data on revenue and expenditures dating back to 2007. These EITI Reports highlighted that, only about 15% of revenues from the mining and hydrocarbon sector have been used for developmental spending, such as infrastructure or economic diversification. The rest has been spent on current expenditures such as salaries and servicing debts. Local citizens are using this information to engage with their regional authorities on alternative ways to spend these resources.

Implementation

Peru was found to have achieved meaningful progress in implementing the EITI Standard. View more information under the Validation section of this page or go to the Board's decision in full. Previously, the country was compliant under the 2011 Rules.

Peru has produced a roadmap for the disclosure of the beneficial owners as per EITI Requirement 2.5 ahead of the deadline of 31st December 2016.  Peru published its 2014 EITI Report in June 2016.The EITI subnational pilots, in Piura and Moquegua, have been concluded. The timeliness of data remains a concern in both national and subnational reports. Expansion of the scope of EITI sub-national implementation is expected to increase up to five regions during 2017.

EITI Peru hosted a number of events in the margins of the 7th EITI Global Conference in February 2016.The Ministry of Energy and the Embassy of Canada in Lima launched a Partnership for sustainable mining in Peru. Following the G7 Fast track partnership. This is an effort to bring together all partners supporting good governance efforts in the Peruvian extractive sector. The proposed new partnership could be an opportunity to integrate the EITI with other efforts aimed at improving the management of the natural resources.

Governance

On 12 May 2006, the Government of Peru published an Executive Decree that created an EITI Working Group which represents the entire stakeholder’s constituency, and provides a legal basis to the implementation of EITI. The mandate of this working group was renewed by Presidential Decree 5 September 2008. In 2011, the EITI working group was given permanent status by Decree No.28-2011-EM of 11 June.

The EITI National Committee (called Comision Multisectorial de la EITI, in Spanish) is chaired by EITI Champion Ing Guillermo Shinno, Vice-Minister of Mines from the Ministry of Energy and Mines and integrated by:

Fernando Castillo - Ministry of Energy, Technical Secretary of the Commission;
Ministry of Finance - Sr Hugo Oropeza - DG Social Management;
Universities: Pacific University - Sr Carlos Casas;
Civil Society: Grupo Propuesta Ciudadana - Sr Epifanio Baca; Derecho, Ambiente y Recursos Naturales - Sra Pilar Camero
Industry - Sociedad de Mineria, Petroleo y Energia - Sra Carmen Mendoza; Sra Caterina Podestá
Industry - Southern Peru Copper Co. - Sr Carlos Aranda; Anglo American- Sr Eduardo Rubio; Repsol - Sr Jorge Luis Mercado

Timeline

Validation

Peru was found to have made meaningful progress in meeting the EITI Standard on 11 January 2017. The country needs to take corrective actions on a number of requirements and will be validated again on 11 January, 2018.

Peru's progress by requirement can be found in the scorecard below. 

Peru's progress by requirement