This is Iraq's 2018 EITI Report, published in March 2021 in accordance with the Board-approved three month extension to its reporting deadline. The 2018 EITI Report is published in Arabic and English. The original source of these documents is the Iraq EITI website (here
Through its 80 known oil fields, Iraq is estimated to have almost 10% of the world’s proven reserves (143 billion barrels) and 2% of the world’s natural gas reserves, making it the largest EITI implementing country by oil and gas reserves. The Rumaila and West Qurna fields together hold more proven oil reserves than the entire United States. According to the International Energy Agency, Iraq has the potential to increase oil production by 1.3m barrels per day, to 6m bpd by 2030. Internal conflict and cut-backs in investment due to low oil prices are among the factors hampering Iraq's ability to reach this potential.
In Baghdad-administered Iraq, the industry is completely state-owned, with the oil marketing company SOMO selling crude to 40 accredited international companies on behalf of four producing companies, South Oil Company, North Oil Company, Missan Oil Company and Midland Oil Company. According to Iraq's latest EITI Report covering 2017, published in December 2019, over 4.4 million barrels per day were produced in 2017 (including production in Iraqi Kurdistan). A signatory to OPEC's output cuts in March 2020, Iraq committed to cut oil production to 3.8m bpd in the second half of 2020.
The semi-autonomous Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) has a series of production sharing agreements with international companies. The KRG publishes reports on production, exports and revenues in its jurisdiction. All officially exported oil from Iraq, including from Kurdistan, goes through the Iraq-Turkey pipeline with ports at Basra and Ceyhan (in Turkey). Any oil in that pipeline is officially the property of Iraq's state-owned oil marketing company SOMO.
Iraq has approximately 9.5% of the world’s proven oil reserves (147,200 million barrels) and major natural gas reserves (at least 3.6 BCM, estimated to be 5% of the world total). In spite of this potential, production over the last decade has been relatively low at around 2.0 - 4.3 million barrels per day due to the ongoing violence.
In addition to Iraq’s oil and gas resources, it possesses some of the world’s richest reserves of sulfur and phosphate as well as other minerals. The 2017 IEITI Report states that Geosurv-Iraq of Iraq estimates the proved phosphate reserves in the country to be 10 billion metric tons - among the top-ten largest reserves in the world. The mining sector is not currently developed, however, and the IEITI Report does not register any private company payments to the government in the sector.
|Oil||147.2||billion barrels||approx. 9.5% of aggreagate oil reserves in the world|
|Gas||3.6||trillion cubic meters|
|Phosphate||10||billion metric tonnes|
Oil and gas revenues for 2017 amounted to USD 60.5 billion, primarily from crude oil sales to 81 international crude oil buyers. Although total production has increased over the last few years, revenues peaked in 2012 and only started to recover in 2017, due to internal conflict, lack of investment in infrastructure and lower international oil prices.
While Iraq's 2016-2018 EITI Reports do not include reconciliation of extractives revenues in the Iraqi Kurdistan region, given Iraq's adapted implementation for these years, some information on the Kurdistan Regional Government's oil and gas revenues, consumption and exports is publicly available in bi-annual reviews prepared by Deloitte and EY.
|Year||Crude oil export revenues (USD million)|
Iraq's natural resources are 100% state-owned. The state-owned enterprise SOMO sells oil and gas on behalf of the state. 95% of revenues from the sale of oil and gas are deposited in the UN-mandated Development Fund for Iraq at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The DFI is managed by the Central Bank of Iraq on behalf of the Ministry of Finance. The remaining 5% are deposited in the United Nations Compensation Fund in accordance with UNSCR 1483 (2003), although these payments were suspended in the 2015-2017 period due to security constraints. There are subnational transfers linked to oil and gas revenues in Iraq, 'Petrodollar allocations', although these have only been transferred to al-Basrah Province in 2015-2017.
Iraq’s national oil companies are audited by the Iraqi Board of Supreme Audit (BSA) based on local Iraqi accounting standards. When originally developed in the 1980s, these standards were based on International Accounting Standards (IAS). Since then the BSA’s standards have been updated, but not in accordance with the IAS. During the course of reconciling differences for the first IEITI Report, the Independent Administrator found that differences in the accounting standards created an “understanding gap between national oil companies as compared with the industry practice”.
All of Iraq EITI’s reports recommend that “National Oil Companies should be audited in accordance with International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards”.
The EITI reports also recommend that buyers provide their audited financial statements yearly to the state’s oil marketing company, SOMO, to ensure that these are in fact available upon request. The Government of Iraq has not yet implemented these recommendations.
The EITI encourages multi-stakeholder groups to explore innovative approaches to make the EITI more relevant and useful.
- EITI Report covers export sales of oil, disaggregated by buying company.
- EITI Report includes detailed production figures and a chapter on mining in Iraq.
- EITI Report covers government payments to companies for remuneration fees, cost recovery and internal service payments (to national oil companies).
- Iraq's national oil companies have published their financial statements for 2016-2017 on their respective websites for the first time.
Iraq was accepted as an EITI Candidate country by the Board on 10 February 2010. The first EITI Report covering 2009 was published in December 2011. As of May 2020, Iraq has published EITI Reports covering eight fiscal years (2009-2017). In an unprecedented gathering of civil society representatives from all over the country, Iraq EITI refreshed part of its multi-stakeholder group in December 2014. The EITI Board declared Iraq compliant with the EITI Rules on 12 December 2012.
In February 2014, Iraq EITI submitted a request for adapted implementation, being unable to guarantee the comprehensive disclosure of material payments collected by the KRG. The Board approved the request for the 2012 and 2013 EITI Reports. Following protracted negotiations between the IEITI and the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG), the Iraq EITI produced an update of its 2010 report in May 2013, including a chapter on Kurdistan’s oil and gas production and revenues from exports, assessed by the Supreme Audit Board. In December 2018, Iraq EITI submitted a new request for adapted implementation, being unable to guarantee the comprehensive disclosure of material payments collected by the KRG. The Board approved the request in April 2019 for the 2016-2018 EITI Reports.
The current objectives for Iraq's EITI implementation (in the 2020 work plan) include improving the enabling environment for the extractive industries, enhancing the transparency and accountability of national and international oil companies, enhancing the environmental sustainability of the extractive industries and improving the broader governance of natural resource management.
The multi-stakeholder group is chaired by the Minister of Oil and includes representatives from the Ministry of Oil, Ministry of Finance, Federal Board of Supreme Audit, state-owned oil companies, civil society and the private sector. The Champion is Mr. Ihsan Abdul Jabbar Ismail, Minister of Oil. The National Coordinator is Mr. Alaa Mohie El-Deen.
On 16 October 2019, Iraq was found to have made meaningful progress in implementing the EITI Standard following its second Validation. Prior to this, the country had been suspended following its first Validation, in which it was found to have achieved inadequate progress in implementing the EITI Standard in October 2017.
Since 2019, Iraq has periodically published the financial statements of some of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs) operating in the upstream oil and gas sector. These include:
Basra Oil CompanyMidland Oil CompanyMissan Oil CompanyNorth Oil CompanyOil Exploration Company Iraqi Drilling CompanySouth Refineries CompanyMidlland Refineries Company Oil Products Distribution CompanyState Oil Marketing Organization (SOMO)
Iraq EITI has published a register of oil and gas service contracts in March 2021, in Arabic. The templates used for each bid round for oil and gas service contracts are published on the IEITI website and here. They include:
TSC: First bid round in June 2009Rumaila (amended in September 2014)Zubair (amended in September 2010, July 2013, May 2017, February 2020)West Qurna (Phase 1) (amended in August 2010, November 2013, February 2014, May 2018)Missan Fields (Abu Ghraib, Buzurgan, Al-Fakkah)DPSC: Second bid round in December 2009West Qurna (Phase 2) (amended in Janaury 2013,
This is Iraq's 2019 EITI annual progress report (in Arabic), published in 2020 in accordance with Requirement 7.4.
This is Iraq's EITI work plan for 2020-2021, published in July 2020. The original version is in Arabic.
This is a compendium of publicly-accessible financial statements for the account to which Iraq's oil and gas export revenues are transferred.
The financial statements of the Central Bank of Iraq's Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) and its successor accounts, such as the Oil Proceeds Account (DFI-2), at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York are audited annually to international standards. Other supporting documentation,
This is a compendium of all publicly-accessible KRG reports on oil production, consumption, exports, and revenues covering 2015, 2017-2020.
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) releases quarterly or bi-annual reports conducted by Deloitte on the region’s oil production, consumption, exports, and revenues. The KRG has committed to continuing the practice of contracting international audit firms (Deloitte and EY) to undertake these reviews. Deloitte was appointed by the KRG's Regional Council for Oil and Gas Affairs to review oil production, export,
In October 2017, the EITI Board agreed that Iraq had made inadequate progress in implementing the 2016 EITI Standard. See Board decision (here
In this second Validation, the EITI International Secretariat has assessed the progress made in addressing the 22 corrective actions established by the EITI Board following the first Validation. See more under background below.
Timeline of Validation and related materials