Myanmar

EITI Status Suspended due to political instability
Joined EITI in 2014
Latest Data From 2017
Latest Validation 2019
Website EITI Myanmar
Last updated 18 February 2021

Overview

Myanmar has been temporarily suspended since 18 February 2021. Following a coup d’état on 1 February, the EITI Board concluded that it was not possible to envisage the EITI operating under the current circumstances.  ​

Myanmar's natural resources include oil and gas, minerals and gems. According to the latest EITI report (covering FY 2017-2018) the extractive sector accounted for 4.8% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP), 5.2% of State revenue and 35% of total exports in 2017-2018

Myanmar published its first commodity trading report which covers sales revenues from the oil and gas sectors performed during the fiscar year 2017-2018. According to the data received from MOGE, the revenue from the commodity trading after reconciliation amounted to MMK 1,179,195 million (aprox. USD 900 million or 60% of total revenue from the extractive sector) in 2017-2018.

The Myanmar government's 12-point Economic Policy accentuates the strategic role of EITI in the reform process, specifically in natural resource governance. The EITI has been a platform for vibrant discussions on issues around revenue sharing, state-owned enterprises, and the need for a unified mineral cadastre system. The EITI is also stimulating public debate and shedding light on lost revenues from the gems and jade sector. According to the fifth Myanmar EITI Report, the value of gems and jade sold through the emporium in 2017-2018 was estimated at EUR 825 167 206. However, study commissioned by Myanmar EITI in 2016 estimated that 60-80% of gemstones produced in the country are not declared and therefore bypass the formal system.

Extractive industries contribution

  • 4.8 %
    to GDP
  • 35 %
    to exports
  • 0.25 %
    to employment
  • 5.2 %
    to government revenue

Beneficial ownership disclosure

In 2018, the Government of Myanmar created a Beneficial Ownership (BO) Task Force composed of representatives from relevant government agencies, in order to provide leadership and direction to the country’s efforts on beneficial ownership disclosure.

Two years later, in February 2020, the Government of Myanmar and Myanmar EITI co-launched a new beneficial ownership register on the Directorate of Investment and Company Administration’s website.

The registry enables users to search mining, oil and gas companies for the identities of individuals owning shares of 5% or more in these companies. Out of the 163 extractive companies that were requested to disclose their beneficial owners through the online form, 121 companies, including four state-owned enterprises, submitted a form with information about their ownership structure.

Additional companies in scope of the 5th EITI report (FY 2017-18) will be included in the registry when a new data collection round commences later this year.

 

 

Production and Exports

Natural resources

Myanmar has rich deposits of natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, gemstones, precious and semi-precious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Around 90% of the world’s supply of rubies are sourced from Myanmar and the country is also the world’s largest single source of Jade. Oil and gas is found both offshore and onshore. Mining occurs throughout the country with most of the jade deposits located in Kachin and Sagaing state.

Production and export of oil and gas (in volume) in FY 2017/18 is summarized in the table below (from the 5th EITI report): 

Gems and jade production are summarized in the tables below  (from the 5th EITI report): 

 

CommodityInitial recoverableProductionFuture recoverable
Oil715.57 million barrels of oil621.88 million barrels of oil93.69 million barrels of oil
Gas2.04 TCF1.66 TCF0.38 TCF

Revenue collection

The latest EITI disclosures (FY 2017-2018) show that total revenue collected from the extractive companies amounted to around  USD1,4 billion. 72.2% of these revenues came from oil and gas, while 27.8% came from the mining sector. Extractive revenues were mainly collected through the government’s share of oil and gas production, royalties, signature bonuses and corporate income tax. 

Revenue allocation

Extractive revenues in Myanmar have to a large extent been retained by State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in so-called “Other Accounts”as the company’s own funds and for the purpose of its exclusive operations and capital investment. The latest EITI Report reveals that Myanmar’s largest operating SOE, Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), transferred about USD 504 million into its Other Accounts in fiscal year 2017-2018. That same fiscal year, the closing balance of this same account was USD 4.6 billion, more than six times the total revenue of just over USD 727 million collected from oil and gas companies for the same fiscal period.

However, responding to recommendations in EITI Reports and calls for more transparency around Other Accounts, the government of Myanmar has undertaken various reform measures to improve SOE transparency. In 2019, the government issued a directive to abolish the contentious Other Accounts, ordering that all revenues from SOEs are to be transferred to the State Budget from fiscal year 2019-2020 and onwards. Following this government order, Other Accounts will be closed and all revenues from SOEs will need to be recorded in the national budget, which will allow for greater public oversight.

Social and economic contribution

According to the 2017-2018 EITI Report, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contribution from the extractive sector amounted to 4.8% of the Country’s GDP. The extractive sector’s contribution to the State’s revenue amounted to 5.2% in 2017-2018, with an export value amounting to 35% in the same period.

Total employment for the extractive sector that was reported by the government agencies represented 0.25% of the total employment of the labour force in FY 2017-2018. 

Policy recommendations and reforms

Addressing legal barriers to contract transparency has been on Myanmar EITI’s agenda since it began implementing the EITI in 201. Myanmar issued a government regulation on 15 December requiring the disclosure of oil, gas and mining contracts in the country that are entered into or amended by 1 January 2021. The requirement applies to all contracts carried out by the Union, states, regions, government departments, state-owned enterprises and private companies. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Ministry of Energy are tasked with implementing the regulation.

EITI reports have found that potential revenue from minerals are lost due to weak governance of the extractive industries.  Recommendations from the latest EITI reports included the strengthening of the institutional capacities of the IRD by establishing an Extractive Industry Revenue Unit, improving data availability and accessibility, and developing better systems for the certification, traceability and valuation of the gemstones, and reforming the governance of SOEs. 

Innovations

The EITI encourages multi-stakeholder groups to explore innovative approaches to make the EITI more relevant and useful.

  • Myanmar published its first commodity trading report which covers sales revenues from the oil and gas sectors performed during the fiscar year 2017-2018. A second commodity trading report is being discussed. 

  • EITI subnational units have been established in Mandalay, Magway, Rakhine and Shan.

Implementation

Myanmar has been temporarily suspended since 18 February 2021.

Following a coup d’état on 1 February, the EITI Board concluded that it was not possible to envisage the EITI operating under the current circumstances. The EITI Board has consequently decided to suspend Myanmar temporarily due to political instability, in accordance with Article 8 (b) of the EITI Standard, and lack of essential freedoms. The temporary suspension will be lifted when Myanmar is able to demonstrate that the reasons for suspension have been addressed. The EITI is continually monitoring and reviewing the situation on a regular basis and considering if further action is necessary including the possibility of delisting.

Myanmar joined the EITI in 2014 with the aim of supporting good governance and transparency reforms.

 

Timeline

 

Validation

Myanmar's Validation against the Standard commenced on 1 July 2018. On 16 October 2019, the EITI Board found Myanmar to have made meaningful progress in implementing the EITI Standard. The country was admitted as EITI candidate in 2014.

Myanmar's next Validation, which was scheduled to commence on 1 October 2022, is currently on hold due to suspension. 

Assessment card: Progress by requirement

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