EITI Status Meaningful progress
Joined EITI in 2014
Latest Data From 2017
Latest Validation 2019
Website EITI Myanmar
Last updated 28 May 2020


Myanmar's natural resources include oil and gas, minerals and gems. The extractive sector accounted for 4.4% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP), 14% of State revenue and 20.4% of total exports in 2016-2017

The Myanmar government's 12-point Economic Policy accentuates the strategic role of EITI in the reform process, specifically in natural resource governance. The EITI has been a platform for vibrant discussions on issues around revenue sharing, state-owned enterprises, and the need of a unified mineral cadastre system. The EITI is also stimulating public debate and shedding light on lost revenues from the gems and jade sector. According to the fourth Myanmar EITI Report, the value of gems and jade that were sold through the emporium in 2016-2017 was estimated at EUR 675,912,504. However, study commissioned by Myanmar EITI in 2016 estimated that 60-80% of gemstones produced in the country are not declared and therefore bypass the formal system.

Extractive industries contribution

  • 4.4 %
    to GDP
  • 20.4 %
    to exports
  • 0.3 %
    to employment
  • 14 %
    to government revenue

Beneficial ownership disclosure

In 2018, the Government of Myanmar created a Beneficial Ownership (BO) Task Force composed of representatives from relevant government agencies, in order to provide leadership and direction to the country’s efforts on beneficial ownership disclosure.

Two years later, in February 2020, the Government of Myanmar and Myanmar EITI co-launched a new beneficial ownership register on the Directorate of Investment and Company Administration’s website.

The registry enables users to search mining, oil and gas companies for the identities of individuals owning shares of 5% or more in these companies. Out of the 163 extractive companies that were requested to disclose their beneficial owners through the online form, 121 companies, including four state-owned enterprises, submitted a form with information about their ownership structure.

Additional companies in scope of the 5th EITI report (FY 2017-18) will be included in the registry when a new data collection round commences later this year.



Production and Exports

Natural resources

Myanmar has rich deposits of natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, gemstones, precious and semi-precious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Around 90% of the world’s supply of rubies are sourced from Myanmar and the country is also the world’s largest single source of Jade. Oil and gas is found both offshore and onshore. Mining occurs throughout the country with most of the jade deposits located in Kachin and Sagaing state.

Production and export of oil and gas (in volume) in FY 2016/17 is illustrated in the figure below: 

Oil138 million barrels1.5 million barrels
Gas9 trillion cubic feet 677,668 MMscfsecond highest production in Southeast Asia

Revenue collection

The latest EITI disclosures (2017) show that Myanmar received around  2,302,776 million Myanmar Kyat from extractive industry. 79% of these revenues came from oil and gas, with the rest from gems and jade (16%) and other minerals (4%). Extractive revenues were mainly collected through the government’s share of oil and gas production, royalties, signature bonuses and corporate income tax. 

Revenue allocation

Extractive revenues in Myanmar are mainly retained by State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in their “Other Accounts”(39% in FY 2016/17) as the company’s own funds and for the purpose of its exclusive operations and capital investment. The lastest EITI figures indicate that in fiscal year 2016/17, oil, gas and mining SOEs collected nearly 1.9 million Myanmar Kyat from extractive companies. In total, 2.1 million Myanmar Kyat were transferred from SOE's to the government. The largest SOE, the Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) transferred more than 1.9 million Myanmarf Kyat, illustrating its significant role in the country’s extractive sector. The SOEs contribute to the government’s budget through two main fiscal instruments: profit tax and dividend.

Social and economic contribution

According to the 2016-2017 EITI Report, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contribution from the extractive sector for 2016-2017 amounted to 4.4% of the Country’s GDP. The extractive sector’s contribution to the State’s revenue amounted to 14% in 2015-2016, with an export value amounting to 20.4% in the same period.

Total employment for the extractive sector that was reported by the government agencies amounted to 90,909 employees, representing 0.3% of the total employment of the labour force (27.19 million) in FY 2016-2017. 

Policy recommendations and reforms

EITI reports have found that potential revenue from minerals are lost due to weak governance of the extractive industries.  Recommendations from the latest EITI reports included the strengthening of the institutional capacities of the IRD by establishing an Extractive Industry Revenue Unit, improving data availability and accessibility, and developing better systems for the certification, traceability and valuation of the gemstones, and reforming the governance of SOEs. 


The EITI encourages multi-stakeholder groups to explore innovative approaches to make the EITI more relevant and useful.

  • EITI subnational units have been established in Mandalay, Magway, Rakhine and Shan.



On 29 December 2016, the Union Government formally established the Myanmar EITI Leading Committee, which is is the highest EITI governing body in the country. The Leading Committee is composed of the Minister of Planning and Finance as Chair, the Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation and the Minister of Energy and Electricity as members, and the Deputy Minister of MOPF as Secretary. The Renaissance Institute was appointed as the National Coordination Secretariat (NCS). The current MSG consists of nine members from civil society and seven members each from government and industry. Civil society is represented by the Myanmar Alliance for Transparency and Accountability (MATA), while industry is represented by members of the Myanmar Federation of Mining Associations (MFMA), Myanmar Gems and Jewellery Entrepreneurs Association (MGJEA) and oil and gas companies. The forestry sector is also represented through the Myanmar Forest Products Merchants Federation (MFPMF).

On 7 March 2017, the EITI International Board set 1 July 2018 as the commncement date for Myanmar's Validation. 




Myanmar's Validation against the Standard commenced on 1 July 2018. On 16 October 2019, the EITI Board found Myanmar to have made meaningful progress in implementing the EITI Standard. The country was admitted as EITI candidate in 2014.

Assessment card: Progress by requirement

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