This annual progress report covers the activities and tasks performed, constraints faced during MEITI implementation from July 2019 to June 2020.
Myanmar's natural resources include oil and gas, minerals and gems. According to the latest EITI report (covering FY 2017-2018) the extractive sector accounted for 4.8% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP), 5.2% of State revenue and 35% of total exports in 2017-2018.
The Myanmar government's 12-point Economic Policy accentuates the strategic role of EITI in the reform process, specifically in natural resource governance. The EITI has been a platform for vibrant discussions on issues around revenue sharing, state-owned enterprises, and the need of a unified mineral cadastre system. The EITI is also stimulating public debate and shedding light on lost revenues from the gems and jade sector. According to the fifth Myanmar EITI Report, the value of gems and jade sold through the emporium in 2017-2018 was estimated at EUR 825 167 206. However, a study commissioned by Myanmar EITI in 2016 estimated that 60-80% of gemstones produced in the country are not declared and therefore bypass the formal system.
Myanmar has various laws and regulations that govern the extractives sector, including a Mining Law, a Gemstone Law and a Petroleum Act, but contracts typically govern all extractive projects. Contracts are confidential, with only the PSC signed between Total Myanmar E&P and MOGE for the Yedana project (dated 9 July 1992) being publicly available. The main revenue streams in both the hydrocarbon and mining sector are royalties, production split and commercial tax/corporate income tax. Tax revenues are collected by the Ministry of Planning, Finance and Industry (MOPFI). Subnational governments do not collect revenues.
In 2018, the Government of Myanmar created a Beneficial Ownership (BO) Task Force composed of representatives from relevant government agencies, in order to provide leadership and direction to the country’s efforts on beneficial ownership disclosure.
Two years later, in February 2020, the Government of Myanmar and Myanmar EITI co-launched a new beneficial ownership register on the Directorate of Investment and Company Administration’s website.
The registry enables users to search mining, oil and gas companies for the identities of individuals owning shares of 5% or more in these companies. Out of the 163 extractive companies that were requested to disclose their beneficial owners through the online form, 121 companies, including four state-owned enterprises, submitted a form with information about their ownership structure.
Additional companies in scope of the 5th EITI report (FY 2017-18) will be included in the registry when a new data collection round commences later this year.
Although extractive industries contributed substantially to the rapid growth of the economy in recent years, we have been facing many challenges in relation to social and environmental issues. In this regard, strong institutions, clear environmental regulations and governance, law enforcement and social safeguards are undoubtedly required, along with social, economic and environment factors to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, Myanmar has been trying to be an Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative-compliant country to ensure transparency and accountability in natural resources exploitation and financial management.
Myanmar has rich deposits of natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, gemstones, precious and semi-precious stones, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Around 90% of the world’s supply of rubies are sourced from Myanmar and the country is also the world’s largest single source of Jade. Oil and gas is found both offshore and onshore. Mining occurs throughout the country with most of the jade deposits located in Kachin and Sagaing state.
Production and export of oil and gas (in volume) in FY 2017/18 is summarized in the table below (from the 5th EITI report):
Gems and jade production are summarized in the tables below (from the 5th EITI report):
|Commodity||Initial recoverable||Production||Future recoverable|
|Oil||715.57 million barrels of oil||621.88 million barrels of oil||93.69 million barrels of oil|
|Gas||2.04 TCF||1.66 TCF||0.38 TCF|
The latest EITI disclosures (FY 2017-2018) show that total revenue collected from the extractive companies amounted to around USD1,4 billion. 72.2% of these revenues came from oil and gas, while 27.8% came from the mining sector. Extractive revenues were mainly collected through the government’s share of oil and gas production, royalties, signature bonuses and corporate income tax.
Extractive revenues in Myanmar have to a large extent been retained by State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in so-called “Other Accounts”as the company’s own funds and for the purpose of its exclusive operations and capital investment. The latest EITI Report reveals that Myanmar’s largest operating SOE, Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), transferred about USD 504 million into its Other Accounts in fiscal year 2017-2018. That same fiscal year, the closing balance of this same account was USD 4.6 billion, more than six times the total revenue of just over USD 727 million collected from oil and gas companies for the same fiscal period.
However, responding to recommendations in EITI Reports and calls for more transparency around Other Accounts, the government of Myanmar has undertaken various reform measures to improve SOE transparency. In 2019, the government issued a directive to abolish the contentious Other Accounts, ordering that all revenues from SOEs are to be transferred to the State Budget from fiscal year 2019-2020 and onwards. Following this government order, Other Accounts will be closed and all revenues from SOEs will need to be recorded in the national budget, which will allow for greater public oversight.
EITI reports have found that potential revenue from minerals are lost due to weak governance of the extractive industries. Recommendations from the latest EITI reports included the strengthening of the institutional capacities of the IRD by establishing an Extractive Industry Revenue Unit, improving data availability and accessibility, and developing better systems for the certification, traceability and valuation of the gemstones, and reforming the governance of SOEs.
Myanmar joined the EITI in 2014 with the aim of supporting good governance and transparency reforms. The three main objectives of the MSG for EITI implementation is:
- To acquire accurate, correct and up-to-date information regarding the management of natural resources and associated material revenues in a timely manner and to make the information publicly available
- To create an enabling environment for the effective implementation of the EITI Standard
- To support the implementation of sustainable development and natural resource governance reforms through the successful execution of EITI.
The EITI in Myanmar has contributed to increasing public debate around the extractives sector and has opened up discussion on issues of natural resource governance such as Other Accounts and the need to revise the gemstone sector policy. The MSG has also extended its outreach to subnational units (SNUs).
On 29 December 2016, the Union Government formally established the Myanmar EITI Leading Committee, which is is the highest EITI governing body in the country. The Leading Committee is composed of the Minister of Planning, Finance and Industry as Chair, the Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation and the Minister of Electricity and Energy as members, and the Deputy Minister of MOPFI as Secretary. The Renaissance Institute was appointed as the National Coordination Secretariat (NCS), with U Soe Win being appointed as National Coordinator. The current MSG is chaired by Deputy Minister for Planning, Finance and Industry, U Maung Maung Win. The MSG consists of eight members from civil society, seven members from industry and nine members from government. Civil society is represented by the Myanmar Alliance for Transparency and Accountability (MATA), while industry is represented by members of the Myanmar Federation of Mining Associations (MFMA), Myanmar Gems and Jewellery Entrepreneurs Association (MGJEA) and oil and gas companies. The forestry sector is also represented through the Myanmar Forest Products Merchants Federation (MFPMF).
The 5th EITI Report covers Myanmar's extractive sector in 2017 and 2018.
The 4th EITI Forestry Report covers Myanmar's forestry sector in 2017 and 2018.
On 16 October 2019, the Board agreed that Myanmar has made meaningful progress overall in implementing the 2016 EITI Standard (2019-58/BM-45
Timeline of Validation and related materials
1 July 2018: Validation commenced8-17 August 2018: Country visit
Initial data collection and stakeholder consultations
24 November 2018 - Report on Initial data collection and stakeholder consultation [English
The 4th EITI Report covers Myanmar's extractive sector in 2016 and 2017. It was first published in March 2019. An updated report was subsequently published in July 2019 (EITI Supplementary Report).
More information can be found on MEITI's website
This EITI Report covers Myanmar's extractive sector in 2015 and 2016. It was published in March 2018.