Oil and gas dominate the extractive sector. Nigeria, in 2011, produced 2.9% and 1.2% of crude oil and gas, respectevely, worldwide. As of 2011's figures according to BP Statistical review, Nigeria holds 2.3% and 2.5% of crude oil and gas worldwide reserves. As Africa’s leading crude oil producer, Nigeria accounted for about 24% of African and about 2.9% of total world crude oil production in 2010. The state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC) reported that crude oil output in 2011 increased by about 15% compared with that of 2009.
The hydrocarbon sector, which included crude oil and natural gas production, accounted for about 14% of Nigeria’s real gross domestic product in 2013. In 2011, the oil industry accounted for 95% of exports, estimated of more than US $100 billion, and over 80 percent of government revenue. The sector is dominated by joint venture operations between the Nigerian government and six major international oil companies—Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Agip, Elf and Texaco. Nigeria’s reserves of natural gas—an estimated 159 trillion cubic feet of proven reserves—are among the ten largest in the world, but gas production is less significant economically.
The government holds all mineral rights and is responsible for issuing exploration and development licenses. The Minerals and Mining Act of 2007 and the Petroleum Act of 1969 form the legal basis for exploration and production activity in the mineral sector. To diversify the oil-based economy, government policy continued to promote investment in the exploration for and the development of solid minerals.
NEITI published the audit reports for 2009, 2010 and 2011 on 31 January 2013. The firm Sada Idris and Co conducted these financial audits that were followed by physical and process audits.
The first Solid minerals audit, done by Haruna Yahaya and Co, covering 2007-2010 was published on 10 December 2012.
NEITI has published a report summarising findings from the first ten years (1999-2008) of EITI reporting. This succinct and informative report is available at the NEITI website.
- EITI reports include financial, physical and process audits.
- EITI-dedicated legislation: NEITI Act, 2007.
- Report disaggregated by company and revenue stream.
- NEITI is trying to investigate and raise debate and promote policy solutions on, among others, data on signature bonuses, unpaid royalties, crude oil and refined products theft, unpaid subsidies by NNPC. NEITI audits have identified US $9.8 billion owed to the Federal Govt, of which $2 billion has been recovered.
- In July 2013, the Tax Appeal Tribunal ordered Mobil Nigeria to pay US $83.4 million to the Federal Govt as unremitted education tax, following the NEITI audit.