Oil and gas dominate the extractive sector. According to BP 2014 Statistical review, Nigeria holds 2.2% of world's crude oil reserves and 2.7% of gas. As Africa’s leading crude oil producer, Nigeria accounted for 26% of African and 2.7% of total world crude oil production in 2012. In the same year it accounted for 1.1% of global gas production. The state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC) reported that crude oil output in 2011 increased by about 15% compared with that of 2009.
The hydrocarbon sector, which included crude oil and natural gas production, accounted for about 14% of Nigeria’s real gross domestic product in 2013. In 2011, the oil industry accounted for 95% of exports, and more than US $100 billion of government revenue (over 80% of total). According to the EITI Oil and Gas Report, government revenue from the petroleum sector was US $68.4 million in 2011.
The sector is dominated by joint venture operations between the Nigerian government and six major international oil companies—Shell, Mobil, Chevron, Agip, Elf and Texaco. Nigeria’s reserves of natural gas—an estimated 159 trillion cubic feet of proven reserves—are among the ten largest in the world, but gas production is less significant economically.
The government holds all mineral rights and is responsible for issuing exploration and development licenses. The Minerals and Mining Act of 2007 and the Petroleum Act of 1969 form the legal basis for exploration and production activity in the mineral sector. To diversify the oil-based economy, government policy continued to promote investment in the exploration for and the development of solid minerals. According to the 2011 EITI Solid Minerals Report, the mining industry has high potential but would require stronger regulatory and monitoring systems to flourish.
The Nigeria EITI process has exposed outstanding debts by the national oil company to the Federal Government, recovered uncollected taxes, identified weaknesses in the regulatory bodies, audited oil-related transfers to subnational government, estimated oil theft, and examined oil sales. Read more in the EITI Progress Report 2014 and the NEITI Annual Activity Report 2013.
The deadline for the 2012 EITI Report covering oil and gas is 31 December 2014. The report will focus particularly on drawing out beneficial ownership information, more detail on quasi-mandatory social payments, building a license registry, and coverage of domestic sales (the ‘crude oil swaps’).
The 2011 Solid Minerals Report was published in May 2014. Revenues from the mining sector were modest in the reporting period, US $170 million, especially when compared with petroleum revenue. Read more about the report here.
NEITI published the audit reports for 2009, 2010 and 2011 on 31 January 2013. These financial audits were followed by physical and process audits. Oil and gas revenue in 2011 reached US $68.4 billion. Read more about the report here.
NEITI has published a report summarising findings from the first ten years (1999-2008) of EITI reporting. This succinct and informative report is available at the NEITI website.
- EITI reports include financial, physical and process audits.
- EITI-dedicated legislation: NEITI Act, 2007.
- Report disaggregated by company and revenue stream.
- NEITI is trying to investigate and raise debate and promote policy solutions on, among others, data on signature bonuses, unpaid royalties, crude oil and refined products theft, unpaid subsidies by NNPC. NEITI audits have identified US $9.8 billion owed to the Federal Govt, of which $2 billion has been recovered.
- In July 2013, the Tax Appeal Tribunal ordered Mobil Nigeria to pay US $83.4 million to the Federal Govt as unremitted education tax, following the NEITI audit.
- NEITI Fiscal Allocation and Statutory Disbursement Audit 2007-2011 brings transparency to the allocation, disbursement and utilisation of revenue from the Federation Account to federal, state and local governments and thereon to local beneficiaries.