Mozambique has seen significant economic growth between 2000 and 2015, due in part to the development of the country’s extractive resources. The mining sector – largely driven by exploitation of coal, graphite, gold and other metals – accounts for about 7% of the national GDP and 6% of the government’s revenues in 2019. However, the sector has seen a decline in recent years. Exploration and commercialisation of the country’s gas reserves are likely to increase the significance of its extractive sector to the national economy, and negotiations for the establishment of an LNG plant are underway.
Mozambique has been using the EITI process to improve transparency in the management of state-owned enterprises and to inform debate on subnational revenues and on legal and policy reforms.
Economic contribution of the extractive industries
- to government revenues
- to exports
- to GDP
- EITI reporting has shown discrepancies in allocations of extractive revenues to communities and a lack of clarity around the revenue sharing formula and criteria. This has contributed to national debate on the need for legal reforms.
- Mozambique EITI has contributed to disclosures of cost recovery audits for natural gas projects.
- Mozambique is using the EITI platform to conduct a study on the oversight of state-owned enterprises participating in the extractive sector.
- The EITI has contributed to the disclosure of Mozambique’s mining and oil and gas contracts.
Mozambique’s mining sector is governed by the Mining Law while its oil and gas sector is governed by the Petroleum Law. The sector is regulated by the National Mining Institute (INAMI), which regulates the exploration, processing, export and import of minerals, and the National Petroleum Institute (INP), which administers oil and gas activities and grants licenses.
The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) collects tax revenue through the Tax Authority, in accordance with the Tax Law.
Mining rights are awarded on a first come first served basis. The law also allows the government to hold a public tender for mining activities and operations. Production sharing agreements define the conditions for hydrocarbon exploration and extraction and are obtained through competitive bidding and direct negotiations.
Both mining and oil and gas contracts are publicly disclosed in Mozambique as mandated by the law.
Mozambique does not have a legal framework mandating the disclosure of beneficial ownership. While the government has a company registry, the latter is not fully electronic, accessible or centralised, as data is collected and held at the provincial level.
The government is working on developing legislation to allow for the consistent collection of information on beneficial owners through the company register.
According to the law, a portion of extractive revenues are to be channelled to the development of communities in areas that host extractive activities. The amount varies per year as determined in the state budget and was set at 2.75% for 2019, according to the latest EITI reporting.
Mozambique EITI is administered by the Mozambique Multi-Stakeholder Group (MSG), also known as the Coordinating Committee, which is hosted by the Minister of Mineral Resources and Energy. The President of the Coordinating Committee is the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources, Hon. Enersto Max Tonela.
Government announces commitment to join the EITI
Multi-stakeholder group is formed
Candidature application is submitted
2008 EITI Report
2009 EITI Report
2010 EITI Report
2011 EITI Report
2012 EITI Report
2013-2014 EITI Report
The Board agreed that Mozambique has made meaningful progress overall in implementing the 2016 EITI Standard.
2015-2016 EITI Report
2017-2018 EITI Report
2019 EITI Report
2020 EITI Report
2021 EITI Report
Mozambique achieved a moderate score (82.5 points) in implementing the 2019 EITI Standard in June 2023.