This EITI Report covers Yemen's extractive sector in 2011. It was published in April 2014.
Yemen was suspended by the EITI Board on 26 February 2015 due to political instability. Having reviewed the likelihood that Yemen would be able to adhere to the EITI Principles and requirements given the ongoing situation, the EITI Board decided at its 38th Board meeting in Manila that Yemen should be delisted and invited to reapply to the EITI once conditions were again favourable for implementation.
Before the current conflict Yemen was highly dependent on its hydrocarbons sector, which in 2010-2012 accounted for almost two thirds of government revenues and 90% of total export revenues according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Due to natural decline and frequent attacks on its oil infrastructure however, oil production in Yemen has shrunk rapidly. At an estimated 100,000 barrels a day, production in March 2014 was comparable to production levels in the early 1980s.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) production had been increasing since the country's first shipment to South Korea in November 2009, but not enough to compensate for the fall in oil production. Like its oil infrastructure, Yemen's natural gas infrastructure is also the target of persistent attacks.
The dependence on hydrocarbons means that the economy is highly vulnerable to fluctuations in the international prices of oil and gas. Meanwhile the IMF estimates that a price of US $215 per barrel would be necessary for the government to balance its budget. The country's oil reserves are relatively limited and could be depleted within 10 years. Gas revenues are set to total US $30-50 billion from 2008 to 2028, and recent discoveries of zinc could expand the extractive sector in Yemen.
The country produces EITI Reports that disclose revenues from the extraction of its natural resources. Companies disclose what they have paid in taxes and other payments and the government discloses what it has received. These two sets of figures are compared and reconciled. Below you may find previous data on total government revenues included in EITI Reports.
Yemen is currently suspended due to the ongoing conflict and is not producing EITI Reports.
The EITI Board decided to suspend Yemen on 26 February 2015 due to political instability.
Yemen's fourth report covering data from 2012 was due on 31 December 2014. The multi-stakeholder group's extension request was superseded by the Board's decision to suspend Yemen due to political instability.
Besides its current suspension, Yemen has previously been suspended three times from the EITI. It was suspended for a year between June 2011 and June 2012 following prolonged violence and instability. Between February and July 2013, it was suspended due to the delayed publication of the 2008, 2009 and 2010 reports, and between March and May 2014, for delayed publication of the 2011 report.
Yemen was declared compliant with the EITI Rules on 1 March 2011. Progress has been slow and characterised by distrust over the representation of civil society in the multi-stakeholder group (MSG). Elections for new MSG representatives are still outstanding and are particularly challenging on the civil society side where there are two civil society coalitions.
This is the Yemen EITI 2013 Annual Progress Report (in accordance with Requirements 7.4 and 8.4).
This Yemen EITI Validation report was published in January 2011.
Pablo is Regional Director at the EITI International Secretariat working with the Middle East and North Africa and Anglo/Lusophone West Africa.
Prior to joining the EITI he was Senior Advisor at the Council on Ethics for the Norwegian Government